Merchants of doubt By Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway
Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Fact on Points from Tobacco Smoke to World Warming is a 2010 non-fiction e book by American historians of science Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway. The U.S. scientific neighborhood has lengthy led the world in analysis on such areas as public well being, environmental science, and points affecting the standard of life. Our scientists have produced landmark research on the risks of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and international warming. However on the identical time, a small but potent subset of this neighborhood leads the world in vehement denial of these risks.
Merchants of Doubt tells the story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and business, ran efficient campaigns to mislead the general public and deny well-established scientific information over 4 many years. Remarkably, the identical people floor repeatedly—some of the identical figures who’ve claimed that the science of international warming is “not settled” denied the reality of research linking smoking to lung most cancers, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone gap. “Doubt is our product,” wrote one tobacco government. These “specialists” provided it. Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, historians of science, roll again the rug on this darkish nook of the American scientific neighborhood, displaying how ideology and company pursuits, aided by a too-compliant media, have skewed public understanding of some of probably the most urgent points of our period.